Graphene-based materials as electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction: A review

Hwapyung Jung, Arun Karmakar, Arindam Adhikari, Rajkumar Patel, Subrata Kundu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The continuous depletion of fossil fuels makes it necessary to find out an appropriate alternative energy sources to fulfill the global energy requirement. During this search, it has been observed that 'hydrogen' with a specific energy density value of 142 kJ mol-1 can play an important role. Electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the ways to generate pure hydrogen by forming water molecules as an impurity. Electrocatalytic water splitting consists of two half-cell reactions, i.e., the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the anode and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at the cathode. Noble metal oxides (RuO2 and IrO2) and Pt metal are considered the state-of-art electrocatalysts for the OER and HER, respectively. However, the high cost and low abundance of these noble metal-based electrocatalysts have motivated the development of alternative electrocatalysts for the practical large-scale generation of hydrogen. Recently, various derivatives of transition metals have been considered as effective and low-cost alternatives to noble metal-based electrocatalysts. However, although various transition metal-based electrocatalysts have been reported thus far to exhibit excellent OER and HER activity, their low conductivity and marginal stability under static conditions require their modification to achieve better stability. Recently, the synthesis of graphene composites with transition metal-based electrocatalysts has gain an increased attention due to their excellent conductivity and stability with excellent hydrogen generation. Here, in this review, for the first time, we have discuss the recent development of various graphene-based composites of transition metals for the water splitting reaction. In addition, the current challenges and opportunities in this field will be discussed elaborately with an extensive future outlook.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-663
Number of pages24
JournalSustainable Energy and Fuels
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 7

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Arun Karmakar received his Bachelor of Science Degree from Derozio Memorial College under West Bengal State University (2017) and his Master of Science Degree from the same university (2019) with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry. While pursuing his M.Sc., he qualied for the NET (National Level Eligibility Test) and JRF (Junior Research Fellowship) from CSIR, New Delhi, with an all India ranking of “23” (December 2018, Chemical Science). Arun Kar-makar joined Dr Subrata Kundu's group in August 2019 and is working on his PhD thesis, mainly focused on the “Synthesis of nano-structured materials for catalysis, electrocatalysis and SERS application”.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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