Graphenes prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann and Hummers methods with consequent thermal exfoliation exhibit very different electrochemical properties

Hwee Ling Poh, Filip Šaněk, Adriano Ambrosi, Guanjia Zhao, Zdeněk Sofer, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

219 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Large-scale fabrication of graphene is highly important for industrial and academic applications of this material. The most common large-scale preparation method is the oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide using concentrated acids in the presence of strong oxidants and consequent thermal exfoliation and reduction by thermal shock to produce reduced graphene. These oxidation methods typically use concentrated sulfuric acid (a) in combination with fuming nitric acid and KClO 3 (Staudenmaier method), (b) in combination with concentrated nitric acid and KClO 3 (Hofmann method) or (c) in the absence of nitric acid but in the presence of NaNO 3 and KMnO 4 (Hummers method). The evaluation of quality and applicability of the graphenes produced by these various methods is of high importance and is attempted side-by-side for the first time in this paper. Full-scale characterization of thermally reduced graphenes prepared by these standard methods was performed with techniques such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their applicability for electrochemical devices was further evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry techniques. We showed that while Staudenmaier and Hofmann methods (methods that do not use potassium permanganate as oxidant) generated thermally reduced graphenes with comparable electrochemical properties, the graphene prepared by the Hummers method which uses permanganate as oxidant showed higher heterogeneous electron transfer rates and lower overpotentials as compared to graphenes prepared by the Staudenmaier or Hofmann methes. This clearly shows that the methods of preparations have dramatic influences on the materials properties and, thus, such findings are of eminent importance for practical applications as well as for academic research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3515-3522
Number of pages8
JournalNanoscale
Volume4
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jun 7

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Graphite
Nitric acid
Electrochemical properties
Oxidants
Graphene
Nitric Acid
Oxidation
Thermal shock
Sulfuric acid
Cyclic voltammetry
Potassium
Raman spectroscopy
Potassium Permanganate
Materials properties
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
Fabrication
Scanning electron microscopy
Oxides
Acids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

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Poh, Hwee Ling ; Šaněk, Filip ; Ambrosi, Adriano ; Zhao, Guanjia ; Sofer, Zdeněk ; Pumera, Martin. / Graphenes prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann and Hummers methods with consequent thermal exfoliation exhibit very different electrochemical properties. In: Nanoscale. 2012 ; Vol. 4, No. 11. pp. 3515-3522.
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Graphenes prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann and Hummers methods with consequent thermal exfoliation exhibit very different electrochemical properties. / Poh, Hwee Ling; Šaněk, Filip; Ambrosi, Adriano; Zhao, Guanjia; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin.

In: Nanoscale, Vol. 4, No. 11, 07.06.2012, p. 3515-3522.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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