Half a century of research on antipsychotics and schizophrenia: A scientometric study of hotspots, nodes, bursts, and trends

Michel Sabe, Toby Pillinger, Stefan Kaiser, Chaomei Chen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Stefan Leucht, Christoph U. Correll, Marco Solmi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Changes over 50 years of research on antipsychotics in schizophrenia have occurred. A scientometric synthesis of such changes over time and a measure of researchers' networks and scientific productivity is currently lacking. We searched Web of Science Core Collection from inception until November 5, 2021, using the appropriate key. Our primary objective was to conduct systematic mapping with CiteSpace to show how clusters of keywords have evolved over time and obtain clusters’ structure and credibility. Our secondary objective was to measure research network performance (countries, institutions, and authors) using CiteSpace, VOSviewer, and Bibliometrix. We included 32,240 studies published between 1955 and 2021. The co-cited reference network identified 25 clusters with a well-structured network (Q=0.8166) and highly credible clustering (S=0.91). The main trends of research were: 1) antipsychotic efficacy; 2) cognition in schizophrenia; 3) side effects of antipsychotics. Last five years research trends were: ‘ultra-resistance schizophrenia’ (S=0.925), ‘efficacy/dose-response’ (S=0.775), ‘evidence-synthesis’ (S=0.737), ‘real-world effectiveness’ (S=0.794), ‘cannabidiol’ (S=0.989), and ‘gut microbiome’ (S=0.842). These results can inform funding agencies and research groups' future directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104608
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Toby Pillinger is supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and Maudsley Charity.

Funding Information:
Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen and Heidi Taipale have participated in research projects funded by grants from Janssen-Cilag and Eli Lilly to their employing institution.

Funding Information:
Christoph U. Correll has been a consultant and/or advisor to or has received honoraria from AbbVie, Acadia, Alkermes, Allergan, Angelini, Aristo, Axsome, Damitsa, Gedeon Richter, Hikma, Holmusk, IntraCellular Therapies, Janssen/J&J, Karuna, LB Pharma, Lundbeck, MedAvante-ProPhase, MedInCell, Medscape, Merck, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Mylan, Neurocrine, Noven, Otsuka, Pfizer, Recordati, Relmada, Rovi, Seqirus, Servier, SK Life Science, Sumitomo Dainippon, Sunovion, Supernus, Takeda, Teva, and Viatris. He provided expert testimony for Janssen and Otsuka. He served on a Data Safety Monitoring Board for Lundbeck, Relmada, Rovi, and Teva. He has received grant support from Janssen and Takeda. He received royalties from UpToDate and is also a stock option holder of LB Pharma.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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