Harmonized gap-filled datasets from 20 urban flux tower sites

Mathew Lipson, Sue Grimmond, Martin Best, Winston T.L. Chow, Andreas Christen, Nektarios Chrysoulakis, Andrew Coutts, Ben Crawford, Stevan Earl, Jonathan Evans, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Bert G. Heusinkveld, Je Woo Hong, Jinkyu Hong, Leena Järvi, Sungsoo Jo, Yeon Hee Kim, Simone Kotthaus, Keunmin Lee, Valéry MassonJoseph P. McFadden, Oliver Michels, Wlodzimierz Pawlak, Matthias Roth, Hirofumi Sugawara, Nigel Tapper, Erik Velasco, Helen Claire Ward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A total of 20 urban neighbourhood-scale eddy covariance flux tower datasets are made openly available after being harmonized to create a 50 site-year collection with broad diversity in climate and urban surface characteristics. Variables needed as inputs for land surface models (incoming radiation, temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind and precipitation) are quality controlled, gap-filled and prepended with 10 years of reanalysis-derived local data, enabling an extended spin up to equilibrate models with local climate conditions. For both gap filling and spin up, ERA5 reanalysis meteorological data are bias corrected using tower-based observations, accounting for diurnal, seasonal and local urban effects not modelled in ERA5. The bias correction methods developed perform well compared to methods used in other datasets (e.g. WFDE5 or FLUXNET2015). Other variables (turbulent and upwelling radiation fluxes) are harmonized and quality controlled without gap filling. Site description metadata include local land cover fractions (buildings, roads, trees, grass etc.), building height and morphology, aerodynamic roughness estimates, population density and satellite imagery. This open collection can help extend our understanding of urban environmental processes through observational synthesis studies or in the evaluation of land surface environmental models in a wide range of urban settings. These data can be accessed from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7104984 (Lipson et al., 2022).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5157-5178
Number of pages22
JournalEarth System Science Data
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov 22

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project coordinating team has been supported by UNSW Sydney and the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science (grant no. CE110001028), University of Reading, the Met Office and ERC urbisphere 855005. Computation support has been provided by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes (grant no. CE170100023) and National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) Australia. It contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information. Site-affiliated acknowledgements are listed in Table 8.

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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