Hazardous minerals mining: Challenges and solutions

Sharrel Rebello, A. N. Anoopkumar, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Sang Hyoun Kim, Ashok Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Minerals are valuable resources gifted to man from the Mother Earth and quite often they need to be dug out from deep down with much effort to utilize them in many of our anthropogenic activities. The fascinating nature, colours as well as the physicochemical properties of minerals has extended their prospective value in the synthesis of various household and industrial products. However, knowledge of the mostly explored minerals, associated products, and their hazardous nature becomes relevant to its prevalence in our daily life. The harmful effects of some minerals are mostly evident from its site of occurrence, process of mining, post mining wastes left over and even in finished products. The current review focuses to evaluate the hazardous nature of minerals, cautions associated with its mining, drastic effects on human health, and ecosystem as an eye-opener to us. Finally, the effective remedies that could be implemented in the exploration of minerals are also discussed to the best of our knowledge. Bioleaching methods of rare earth elements and copper have been discussed briefly to explain the pros and cons of biological methods over conventional chemical leaching methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123474
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Raveendran Sindhu acknowledges Department of Science and Technology for sanctioning a project under DST WOS-B scheme.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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