Energy transfer (ET) and energy harvesting (EH) through radio frequency (RF) signals are a promising technology that can reduce the dependency on batteries in wireless sensor networks. However, there is a tradeoff between the RF-based ET and data communication when they operate in the same frequency band. Therefore, a proper medium access control (MAC) protocol is needed in wireless powered sensor networks (WPSNs). However, a utilization degradation problem occurs when the distributed coordination function (DCF) MAC protocol of the IEEE 802.11 is applied to WPSNs. In order to overcome this problem, this paper extends the IEEE 802.11e enhanced DCF (EDCF) into a harvest-then-transmit-based modified EDCF MAC (HE-MAC) protocol. In addition, the HE-MAC's Markov chain model and steady-state probabilities are derived and used in the performance analysis. Next, based on the steady-state conditions, optimization is conducted to maximize the EH rate, which satisfies the frame generation rate and transfers additional energy to achieve a self-sustained energy consumption profile. Finally, the simulation performance of EH protocols HE-MAC, RF-MAC, and DOS are compared, where the results show that HE-MAC provides in a superior performance for the range of interest.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Applied Mathematics