Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently been recognized as the single greatest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine. As the population ages and the comorbidity increases, the prevalence of HFpEF increases considerably. Even though there have been large numbers of studies on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of HFpEF for latest years, there are no current pharmacologic interventions that can reduce mortality. HFpEF is currently understood as a heterogeneous syndrome originated from the interplay of cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities recognized by systemic inflammation, endothelial and coronary microvascular dysfunction, cardiomyocyte dysfunction and skeletal muscle dysfunction. The difficult “jigsaw puzzle” called HFpEF has been filled with some pieces, but it is still not enough to meet clinical needs. Here, we review recent evidences and unsolved problems about HFpEF to improve our understanding of HFpEF. Finally, we hope to accelerate to completion of the problematic “jigsaw puzzle”.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine