AIM: To evaluate the possibility of treatment effect monitoring using hepatic fat quantification magnetic resonance (MR) in pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received educational recommendations and vitamin E for NASH and underwent hepatic fat quantification MR from 2011 to 2013. Hepatic fat fraction (%) was measured using dual-and triple-echo gradient-recalled-echo sequences at 3T. The compliant and non-compliant groups were compared clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. RESULTS: Twenty seven patients (M:F = 24:3; mean age: 12 2.3 years) were included (compliant group = 22, non-compliant = 5). None of the baseline findings differed between the 2 groups, except for triglyceride level (compliant vs non-compliant, 167.7 mg/dL vs 74.2 mg/dL, P = 0.001). In the compliant group, high-density lipoprotein increased and all other parameters decreased after 1-year follow-up. However, there were various changes in the non-compliant group. Dualecho fat fraction (-19.2% vs 4.6, P < 0.001), tripleecho fat fraction (-13.4% vs 3.5, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (-110.7 IU/L vs-10.6 IU/L, P = 0.047), total cholesterol (-18.1 mg/dL vs 3.8 mg/dL, P = 0.016), and triglyceride levels (-61.3 mg/dL vs 11.2 mg/dL, P = 0.013) were significantly decreased only in the compliant group. The change in body mass index and dual-echo fat fraction showed a positive correlation (= 0.418, P = 0.030). CONCLUSION: Hepatic fat quantification MR can be a non-invasive, quantitative and useful tool for monitoring treatment effects in pediatric NASH.
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