Dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms as well as genomic mutations contribute to the initiation and progression of cancer. In addition to histone code writers, including histone lysine methyltransferase (KMT), and histone code erasers, including histone lysine demethylase (KDM), histone code reader proteins such as HP1 are associated with abnormal chromatin regulation in human diseases. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) recognizes histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and broadly affects chromatin biology, such as heterochromatin formation and maintenance, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, and chromosomal segregation. Molecular functions of HP1 proteins have been extensively studied, although their exact roles in diseases require further study. Here, we comprehensively review the studies that have revealed the altered expression of HP1 and its functions in tumorigenesis. In particular, the distinctive effects of each HP1 subtype, namely HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ, have been thoroughly explored in various cancer types. We also highlight how HP1 can serve as a potential biomarker for cancer prognosis and therapeutic target for cancer patients.
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Feb 1|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2018R1A6A1A03023718, 2019R1A2C1008619, and 2019H1A2A1076925).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research