High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension

Chang Yun Yoon, Juhwan Noh, Jinae Lee, Youn Kyung Kee, Changhwan Seo, Misol Lee, Min Uk Cha, Hyoungnae Kim, Seohyun Park, Hae Ryong Yun, Su Young Jung, Jong Hyun Jhee, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae Hyun Yoo, Shin Wook Kang, Jung Tak Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or development of proteinuria during follow-up]. The median ages were 55 and 47 years, the proportions of males 50.9% and 46.3%, and the median eGFR 92 and 96 mL/min/1.73 m2 in individuals with and without hypertension, respectively. During a median follow-up of 123 months in individuals with hypertension and 140 months in those without hypertension, CKD developed in 27.8% and 16.5%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, multiple Cox models indicated that the risk of CKD development was significantly higher in people with hypertension who consumed less than 2.08 g/day or over 4.03 g/day sodium than in those who consumed between 2.93–4.03 g/day sodium. However, there was no significant difference in the incident CKD risk among each quartile of people without hypertension. Thus, both high and low sodium intakes were associated with increased risk for CKD, but this relationship was only observed in people with hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)921-931
Number of pages11
JournalKidney International
Volume93
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Apr

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Renal Hypertension
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Sodium
Hypertension
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Kidney
Proteinuria
Proportional Hazards Models
Epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Salts
Genome
Prospective Studies
Food

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Yoon, Chang Yun ; Noh, Juhwan ; Lee, Jinae ; Kee, Youn Kyung ; Seo, Changhwan ; Lee, Misol ; Cha, Min Uk ; Kim, Hyoungnae ; Park, Seohyun ; Yun, Hae Ryong ; Jung, Su Young ; Jhee, Jong Hyun ; Han, Seung Hyeok ; Yoo, Tae Hyun ; Kang, Shin Wook ; Park, Jung Tak. / High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension. In: Kidney International. 2018 ; Vol. 93, No. 4. pp. 921-931.
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title = "High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension",
abstract = "The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or development of proteinuria during follow-up]. The median ages were 55 and 47 years, the proportions of males 50.9{\%} and 46.3{\%}, and the median eGFR 92 and 96 mL/min/1.73 m2 in individuals with and without hypertension, respectively. During a median follow-up of 123 months in individuals with hypertension and 140 months in those without hypertension, CKD developed in 27.8{\%} and 16.5{\%}, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, multiple Cox models indicated that the risk of CKD development was significantly higher in people with hypertension who consumed less than 2.08 g/day or over 4.03 g/day sodium than in those who consumed between 2.93–4.03 g/day sodium. However, there was no significant difference in the incident CKD risk among each quartile of people without hypertension. Thus, both high and low sodium intakes were associated with increased risk for CKD, but this relationship was only observed in people with hypertension.",
author = "Yoon, {Chang Yun} and Juhwan Noh and Jinae Lee and Kee, {Youn Kyung} and Changhwan Seo and Misol Lee and Cha, {Min Uk} and Hyoungnae Kim and Seohyun Park and Yun, {Hae Ryong} and Jung, {Su Young} and Jhee, {Jong Hyun} and Han, {Seung Hyeok} and Yoo, {Tae Hyun} and Kang, {Shin Wook} and Park, {Jung Tak}",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1016/j.kint.2017.09.016",
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Yoon, CY, Noh, J, Lee, J, Kee, YK, Seo, C, Lee, M, Cha, MU, Kim, H, Park, S, Yun, HR, Jung, SY, Jhee, JH, Han, SH, Yoo, TH, Kang, SW & Park, JT 2018, 'High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension', Kidney International, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 921-931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.09.016

High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension. / Yoon, Chang Yun; Noh, Juhwan; Lee, Jinae; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min Uk; Kim, Hyoungnae; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae Ryong; Jung, Su Young; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Kang, Shin Wook; Park, Jung Tak.

In: Kidney International, Vol. 93, No. 4, 04.2018, p. 921-931.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - High and low sodium intakes are associated with incident chronic kidney disease in patients with normal renal function and hypertension

AU - Yoon, Chang Yun

AU - Noh, Juhwan

AU - Lee, Jinae

AU - Kee, Youn Kyung

AU - Seo, Changhwan

AU - Lee, Misol

AU - Cha, Min Uk

AU - Kim, Hyoungnae

AU - Park, Seohyun

AU - Yun, Hae Ryong

AU - Jung, Su Young

AU - Jhee, Jong Hyun

AU - Han, Seung Hyeok

AU - Yoo, Tae Hyun

AU - Kang, Shin Wook

AU - Park, Jung Tak

PY - 2018/4

Y1 - 2018/4

N2 - The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or development of proteinuria during follow-up]. The median ages were 55 and 47 years, the proportions of males 50.9% and 46.3%, and the median eGFR 92 and 96 mL/min/1.73 m2 in individuals with and without hypertension, respectively. During a median follow-up of 123 months in individuals with hypertension and 140 months in those without hypertension, CKD developed in 27.8% and 16.5%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, multiple Cox models indicated that the risk of CKD development was significantly higher in people with hypertension who consumed less than 2.08 g/day or over 4.03 g/day sodium than in those who consumed between 2.93–4.03 g/day sodium. However, there was no significant difference in the incident CKD risk among each quartile of people without hypertension. Thus, both high and low sodium intakes were associated with increased risk for CKD, but this relationship was only observed in people with hypertension.

AB - The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney function remains unclear. Here we evaluated the effect of sodium intake on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a prospective cohort of people with normal renal function. Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a prospective community-based cohort study while sodium intake was estimated by a 24-hour dietary recall Food Frequency Questionnaire. A total of 3,106 individuals with and 4,871 patients without hypertension were analyzed with a primary end point of CKD development [a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or development of proteinuria during follow-up]. The median ages were 55 and 47 years, the proportions of males 50.9% and 46.3%, and the median eGFR 92 and 96 mL/min/1.73 m2 in individuals with and without hypertension, respectively. During a median follow-up of 123 months in individuals with hypertension and 140 months in those without hypertension, CKD developed in 27.8% and 16.5%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, multiple Cox models indicated that the risk of CKD development was significantly higher in people with hypertension who consumed less than 2.08 g/day or over 4.03 g/day sodium than in those who consumed between 2.93–4.03 g/day sodium. However, there was no significant difference in the incident CKD risk among each quartile of people without hypertension. Thus, both high and low sodium intakes were associated with increased risk for CKD, but this relationship was only observed in people with hypertension.

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