Hypertension is an important public health concern. The prevalence keeps increasing, and it is a risk factor for several adverse health outcomes including a decline in cognitive function. Recent data also show that the prevalence of hypertension and age-related dementia is rising in Asian countries, including in the oldest old group. This study aims to discuss possible treatments for high blood pressure in the elderly and propose an optimal target for BP relative to cognitive outcomes. This review discusses several studies on related blood pressure treatments that remain controversial and the consequences if the treatment target is too low or aggressive. Longitudinal, cross-sectional, and RCT studies were included in this review. An optimum systolic blood pressure of 120-130 mm Hg is recommended, especially in nondiabetic hypertensive patients with significant risk factors. In the oldest old group of patients, hypertension might have a protective effect. The use of calcium channel blockers (CCB) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is independently associated with a decreased risk of dementia in older people. However, personalized care for patients with hypertension, especially for patients who are frail or very old, is encouraged.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
K Kario received research grants from Omron Healthcare, Fukuda Denshi, A&D, Pfizer Japan, and honoraria from Omron Healthcare. S Park has received honoraria from Pfizer, Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Daewon pharmaceutical company, Boryung pharmaceutical company, and Servier. S Siddique has received honoraria from Bayer, Novartis, Pfizer, ICI, and Servier; and travel, accommodation, and conference registration support from Atco Pharmaceutical, Highnoon Laboratories, Horizon Pharma, ICI, Pfizer, and CCL. YC Chia has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend conferences and CME seminars from Abbott, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Orient Europharma, Pfizer, and Sanofi; and a research grant from Pfizer. J Nailes has received research grants from Pfizer. J Shin has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend seminars from Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Menarini, MSD, Bristol‐Myers Squibb, and Sanofi. CH Chen has served as an advisor or consultant for Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; has served as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for AstraZeneca; Pfizer Inc; Bayer AG; Bristol‐Myers Squibb Company; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Daiichi Sankyo, Inc; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; SERVIER; Merck & Co., Inc; Sanofi; TAKEDA Pharmaceuticals International; and has received grants for clinical research from Microlife Co., Ltd. J Sison has received honoraria from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, AmGen, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Novartis. GP Sogunuru has received a research grant related to hypertension monitoring and treatment from Pfizer. JG Wang has received research grants from Bayer, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, and Phillips; and lecture and consulting fees from Bayer, Daiichi‐Sankyo, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, Servier and Takeda. TD Wang has received honoraria from Abbott, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Medtronic, Menarini, Novartis, Omron, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier. Y Zhang has received research grants from Bayer, Novartis, and Shuanghe; and lecture fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Servier, and Takeda. All other authors report no potential conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine