High dietary sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with NAFLD and hepatic fibrosis

Ji Hye Huh, Kyong Joo Lee, Jung Soo Lim, Mi Young Lee, Hong Jun Park, Moon Young Kim, Jae Woo Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Jang Yel Shin, Hyun Soo Kim, Sang Ok Kwon, Soon Koo Baik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. Results The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001). Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values. Conclusions High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0143222
JournalPloS one
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Nov 1

Fingerprint

Dietary Sodium
liver cirrhosis
fatty liver
Liver
Fibrosis
excretion
Sodium
sodium
Fatty Liver
Odds Ratio
Urine
Confidence Intervals
Hypertension
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrition Surveys
odds ratio
hypertension
Korea
confidence interval
Liver Cirrhosis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

@article{715e22078a744f8788c66cb3a4851a64,
title = "High dietary sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with NAFLD and hepatic fibrosis",
abstract = "Background Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. Results The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001). Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values. Conclusions High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.",
author = "Huh, {Ji Hye} and Lee, {Kyong Joo} and Lim, {Jung Soo} and Lee, {Mi Young} and Park, {Hong Jun} and Kim, {Moon Young} and Kim, {Jae Woo} and Chung, {Choon Hee} and Shin, {Jang Yel} and Kim, {Hyun Soo} and Kwon, {Sang Ok} and Baik, {Soon Koo}",
year = "2015",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0143222",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "11",

}

High dietary sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with NAFLD and hepatic fibrosis. / Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo.

In: PloS one, Vol. 10, No. 11, e0143222, 01.11.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - High dietary sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with NAFLD and hepatic fibrosis

AU - Huh, Ji Hye

AU - Lee, Kyong Joo

AU - Lim, Jung Soo

AU - Lee, Mi Young

AU - Park, Hong Jun

AU - Kim, Moon Young

AU - Kim, Jae Woo

AU - Chung, Choon Hee

AU - Shin, Jang Yel

AU - Kim, Hyun Soo

AU - Kwon, Sang Ok

AU - Baik, Soon Koo

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Background Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. Results The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001). Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values. Conclusions High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

AB - Background Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. Results The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001). Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values. Conclusions High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84957108852&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84957108852&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0143222

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0143222

M3 - Article

C2 - 26571018

AN - SCOPUS:84957108852

VL - 10

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 11

M1 - e0143222

ER -