Batteries represent the dominant means for storing electrical energy, but many battery chemistries create waste streams that are difficult to manage, and most possess toxic components that limit their use in biomedical applications. Batteries constructed from materials capable of complete, harmless resorption into the environment or into living organisms after a desired period of operation bypass these disadvantages. However, previously reported eco/bioresorbable batteries offer low operating voltages and modest energy densities. Here, we introduce a magnesium-iodine chemistry and dual (ionic liquid/aqueous) electrolyte to overcome these limitations, enabling significant improvements in voltage, areal capacity, areal energy, areal power, volumetric energy, and volumetric power densities over any alternative. Systematic studies reveal key materials and design considerations. Demonstrations of this technology include power supplies for cardiac pacemakers, wireless environmental monitors, and thermal sensors/actuators. These results suggest strong potential for applications where commercial battery alternatives pose risks to the environment or the human body.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Energy and Environmental Science|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Sept 5|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work utilized the Nano Fabrication Facility (NUFAB) and EPIC facilities of Northwestern University's NUANCE Center, which receives support from the Soft and Hybrid Nanotechnology Experimental (SHyNE) resource (NSF ECCS-2025633), the International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN), and Northwestern's MRSEC program (NSF DMR-1720139); the Keck Biophysics Facility, a shared resource of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University supported in part by the NCI Cancer Center Support Grant #P30 CA060553.
© 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering