High-Pressure Solvent Vapor Annealing with a Benign Solvent To Rapidly Enhance the Performance of Organic Photovoltaics

Buyoung Jung, Kangmin Kim, Yoomin Eom, Woochul Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


A high-pressure solvent vapor annealing (HPSVA) treatment is suggested as an annealing process to rapidly achieve high-performance organic photovoltaics (OPVs); this process can be compatible with roll-to-roll processing methods and uses a benign solvent: acetone. Solvent vapor annealing can produce an advantageous vertical distribution in the active layer; however, conventional solvent vapor annealing is also time-consuming. To shorten the annealing time, high-pressure solvent vapor is exposed on the active layer of OPVs. Acetone is a nonsolvent for poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), but it can dissolve small amounts of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1,1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM). Acetone vapor molecules can penetrate into the active layer under high vapor pressure conditions to alter the morphology. HPSVA induces a PCBM-rich phase near the cathode and facilitates the transport of free charge carriers to the electrode. Although P3HT is not soluble in acetone, locally rearranged P3HT crystallites are generated. The performance of OPV films was enhanced after HPSVA; the film treated at 30 kPa for 10 s showed optimum performance. Additionally, this HPSVA method could be adapted for mass production because the temporary exposure of films to high-pressure acetone vapor in ambient conditions also improved performance. (Figure Presented).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13342-13349
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun 24

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Chemical Society.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)


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