A nationwide antimicrobial resistance surveillance has been conducted since 1997 in Korea. In this study, susceptibility test data generated in 2004 by KONSAR group hospitals were analyzed and compared to those at a commercial laboratory. In hospitals, the rank orders of organisms in 2004 were identical to those in 2003. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%) in hospitals, but Evcherichia coli (29.7%) in the commercial laboratory. The proportions of Enterococcus faecium to all isolates of Enterococcus faecalis plus E. faecium were 47.2% in hospitals and 24.9% in the commercial laboratory, The mean resistance rates of significant antimicrobial-organism combinations in hospitals were: oxaciltin-resistant S. aureus (68%), oxacillin-resistant (penicillin-nonsusceptible) Streptococcus pneumoniae (68%), vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (25%), cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (14%), ceftazidime- and cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (34% and 32%, respectively), and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17% and 24%, respectively). In conclusion, oxacillin-resistant staphylococci, expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae, and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa were prevalent in 2004. Increasing trends were observed for vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, cefoxitin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa. Certain antimicrobial-organism combinations were also prevalent among the commercial taboratoly-tested stains.
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