Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally, accounting for approximately 800,000 deaths annually. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, making up about 80% of cases. Liver fibrosis and its end-stage disease, cirrhosis, are major risk factors for HCC. A fibrotic liver typically shows persistent hepatocyte death and compensatory regeneration, chronic inflammation, and an increase in reactive oxygen species, which collaboratively create a tumor-promoting microenvironment via inducing genetic alterations and chromosomal instability, and activating various oncogenic molecular signaling pathways. In this article, we review recent advances in fields of liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis, and consider several molecular signaling pathways that promote hepato-carcinogenesis under the microenvironment of liver fibrosis. In particular, we pay attention to emerging roles of the Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway in stromal activation, hepatic fibrosis, and liver cancer.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant 2016R1A2B4013891 (awarded to S.W.R.), which was funded by the Korea government (MSIP).
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry