Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that serum calcium levels correlate with cardiovascular events. An ankle-brachial index (ABI) between 0.9 and 1.00 is a surrogate estimation of preclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Prior studies have shown that an ABI of 0.9-1.0 is also associated with endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between serum calcium levels and preclinical PAD in apparently healthy Korean individuals. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum calcium levels and preclinical PAD in 596 participants (334 males, 262 females) in a health examination program. Preclinical PAD was defined by an ABI of 0.9-1.0. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether the serum calcium level was an independent determinant of preclinical PAD. Results: The overall prevalence of preclinical PAD was 14.3%. The mean age was 44.0±12.5 years in the non-PAD group and 48.3±11.4 years in the preclinical PAD group (P=0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, γ-glutamyltransferase, uric acid, hypertension medication, diabetes medication, and hyperlipidemia medication, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for preclinical PAD was 2.28 (1.02-5.11) with a 1-mg/dL increase in the serum calcium. Conclusion: These findings suggest that increased serum calcium is independently and positively associated with preclinical PAD regardless of the presence of classic cardiovascular risk factors.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Korean Academy of Family Medicine.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Family Practice