Higher serum calcium levels are associated with preclinical peripheral arterial disease among the apparently healthy individuals

Hyung Jin Kim, Mi Ri Kim, Jin Kyung Park, Yong Jae Lee, Byoungjin Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that serum calcium levels correlate with cardiovascular events. An ankle-brachial index (ABI) between 0.9 and 1.00 is a surrogate estimation of preclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Prior studies have shown that an ABI of 0.9-1.0 is also associated with endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between serum calcium levels and preclinical PAD in apparently healthy Korean individuals. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum calcium levels and preclinical PAD in 596 participants (334 males, 262 females) in a health examination program. Preclinical PAD was defined by an ABI of 0.9-1.0. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether the serum calcium level was an independent determinant of preclinical PAD. Results: The overall prevalence of preclinical PAD was 14.3%. The mean age was 44.0±12.5 years in the non-PAD group and 48.3±11.4 years in the preclinical PAD group (P=0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, γ-glutamyltransferase, uric acid, hypertension medication, diabetes medication, and hyperlipidemia medication, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for preclinical PAD was 2.28 (1.02-5.11) with a 1-mg/dL increase in the serum calcium. Conclusion: These findings suggest that increased serum calcium is independently and positively associated with preclinical PAD regardless of the presence of classic cardiovascular risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-283
Number of pages5
JournalKorean Journal of Family Medicine
Volume39
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Family Practice

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