A highly-conformal and stoichiometric p-type cuprous copper(I) oxide (Cu 2 O) thin films were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD) by a fluorine-free amino-alkoxide Cu precursor, bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy)copper (C 14 H 32 N 2 O 2 Cu), and water vapor (H 2 O). Among tested deposition temperatures ranging from 120 to 240 °C, a self-limited film growth was clearly confirmed for both precursor and reactant pulsing times at 140 °C. Between 140 and 160 °C, the process exhibited an almost constant growth rate of ∼0.013 nm/cycle and a negligible number of incubation cycles (approximately 6 cycles). The Cu 2 O films deposited at the optimal temperature (e.g. 140 °C) showed better properties in view of their crystallinity and roughness compared to the films deposited at higher temperatures. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry showed that the film deposited at 140 °C was almost stoichiometric (a ratio of Cu and O ∼2: 1.1) with negligible C and N impurities. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further revealed that Cu and O in the film mostly formed Cu 2 O bonding rather than CuO bonding. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy analysis showed formation of densely packed crystal grains with a cubic crystal structure of cuprous Cu 2 O. The step coverage of ALD-Cu 2 O film was remarkable, approximately 100%, over 1.14-μm-high Si nanowires with an aspect ratio (AR) of 7.6:1 and onto nano-trenches (top opening width: 25 nm) with an AR of 4.5:1. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to determine optical constants, giving optical direct band gap of 2.52 eV. Finally, Hall measurement confirmed that the ALD-Cu 2 O film had p-type carriers with a high Hall mobility of 8.05 cm 2 /V s.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Converging Research Center Program through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( 2012K001298 ) and also partially supported by Korea Research Foundation ( NRF-2012H1B8A2025602 ).
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films