Highly-sensitive single-step sensing of levodopa by swellable microneedle-mounted nanogap sensors

Seung Hyun Park, Yong Jae Kim, Elisabeth Kostal, Volha Matylitskaya, Stefan Partel, Won Hyoung Ryu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Microneedle (MN) sensing of biomarkers in interstitial fluid (ISF) can overcome the challenges of self-diagnosis of diseases by a patient, such as blood sampling, handling, and measurement analysis. However, the MN sensing technologies still suffer from poor measurement accuracy due to the small amount of target molecules present in ISF, and require multiple steps of ISF extraction, ISF isolation from MN, and measurement with additional equipment. Here, we present a swellable MN-mounted nanogap sensor that can be inserted into the skin tissue, absorb ISF rapidly, and measure biomarkers in situ by amplifying the measurement signals by redox cycling in nanogap electrodes. We demonstrate that the MN-nanogap sensor measures levodopa (LDA), medication for Parkinson disease, down to 100 nM in an aqueous solution, and 1 μM in both the skin-mimicked gelatin phantom and porcine skin.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114912
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Global Infrastructure Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the MSIT ( 2019K1A3A1A18116048 ), South Korea(W.R.), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government(MSIT) ( 2020R1A2C3013158 ), South Korea(W.R.), the Yonsei-KIST Convergence Research Program, South Korea(W.R.), and the Austrian Agency of Education and Internationalisation (OeAD) ( KR 05/2020 ), Austria(S.P.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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