This article takes an effort to establish the potential of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique toward the field of supercapacitors by preparing molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as its electrode. While molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] serves as a novel precursor toward the low-temperature synthesis of ALD-grown MoS2, H2S plasma helps to deposit its polycrystalline phase at 200 °C. Several ex situ characterizations such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and so forth are performed in detail to study the as-grown MoS2 film on a Si/SiO2 substrate. While stoichiometric MoS2 with very negligible amount of C and O impurities was evident from XPS, the XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed the (002)-oriented polycrystalline h-MoS2 phase of the as-grown film. A comparative study of ALD-grown MoS2 as a supercapacitor electrode on 2-dimensional stainless steel and on 3-dimensional (3D) Ni-foam substrates clearly reflects the advantage and the potential of ALD for growing a uniform and conformal electrode material on a 3D-scaffold layer. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed both double-layer capacitance and capacitance contributed by the faradic reaction at the MoS2 electrode surface. The optimum number of ALD cycles was also found out for achieving maximum capacitance for such a MoS2@3D-Ni-foam electrode. A record high areal capacitance of 3400 mF/cm2 was achieved for MoS2@3D-Ni-foam grown by 400 ALD cycles at a current density of 3 mA/cm2. Moreover, the ALD-grown MoS2@3D-Ni-foam composite also retains high areal capacitance, even up to a high current density of 50 mA/cm2. Finally, this directly grown MoS2 electrode on 3D-Ni-foam by ALD shows high cyclic stability (>80%) over 4500 charge-discharge cycles which must invoke the research community to further explore the potential of ALD for such applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)