Four cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were surgically resected following combined radiotherapy (RT) and hyperthermia (HT). Complete necrosis of the tumor without viable tumor cell was found in one case and extensive tumor necrosis was observed in the other three cases; the percentage of necrosis in the specimens were 40%, 70%, and 80%, respectively. Histologic assessment showed mainly coagulative necrosis in the tumor with focal liquefactive necrosis. Cystic dilatation of sinusoids was observed in both tumor and nontumorous normal liver tissue. Other changes in normal liver tissue were unremarkable except for infiltration of inflammatory cells, fatty change, and proliferation of the bile ducts which can usually be seen beyond the area where any space occupying lesions are present. It is concluded that combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia can significantly induce coagulative necrosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with nonsignificant minimal histologic changes in adjacent nontumorous liver tissue.
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