Based on interviews and surveys conducted between 1999 and 2013 as part of a mixed-method longitudinal study, this article examines relationships between how fathers and mothers provided homework help for 738 eighth and ninth graders in Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, and these students’ likelihood of getting high test scores in middle school and eventually completing regular bachelor's degrees. We found that the relationship between fathers’ homework help and their children’s test scores in middle school was positive, while the relationship between fathers’ homework help and their children’s college attainment was negative. On the other hand, mothers’ homework help was negatively associated with their children’s middle school test scores and positively associated with their children’s college attainment. These results suggest that fathers and mothers are involved in different ways at home. Follow-up interviews with twenty-eight of the survey respondents revealed that their mothers tended to be more supportive and more frequently and regularly involved with their education, while their fathers’ involvement tended to be more sporadic and harsher.
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