Particulate-bound poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity effect on human health. In this context, identification, quantification and inhalation cancer risk (ICR) assessment due to PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs has been carried out at six monitoring stations in a critically polluted Jharia coalfield/Dhanbad City. Identification of pollution sources at study area has been performed by using PCA statistical methods. Air quality index (AQI) and air quality health index (AQHI) were calculated based on the concentration levels of PM10. Location-wise direct comparison between AQI, AQHI and ICR was performed to analyse the risk levels. Consequently, maximum concentration levels of particulate (PM2.5 and PM10)-bound total PAHs (400 and 482 ng/m3) were recorded at the monitoring station Lodna Thana, followed by Bank More and Sijua Stadium, respectively. It was also observed that mine fire-affected station Lodna Thana was exaggerated with presence of PAHs due to wood and open coal burning activities. Moreover, about 1000 and 889 cases of inhalation cancer risk were estimated due to direct exposure of PM10- and PM2.5-bound PAHs in the study area, respectively. Active mine fire-affected station Lodna Thana was recorded with maximum probability of lung tumour due to inhalation cancer risk. This study has reported higher AQHI at station Dugdha Basti, Lodna Thana and Bank More, which results increased number of tumours due to ICR. This result concludes that Jharia coalfield/Dhanbad City are not only critically polluted area but it is also an inhalation cancer prone area due to direct exposure of active mine fire.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to the editors and reviewers for providing many valuable suggestions for improving the manuscript. The authors (1st and 3rd) are thankful to Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad for providing the Junior Research Fellowship to carry out this study. The communicating author is also thankful to KRF organization committee and Dean and Director of Yonsei University, South Korea, for providing a platform for the current research.
© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis