Antibiotics are antimicrobial substances that can be used for preventive and therapeutic purposes in humans and animals. Their overdose usage has led to uncontrolled release to the environment, contributing significantly to the development of antimicrobial resistance phenomena. Here, enzyme-immobilized self-propelled zinc oxide (ZnO) microrobots are proposed to effectively target and degrade the released antibiotics in water bodies. Specifically, the morphology of the microrobots is tailored via the incorporation of Au during the synthetic process to lead the light-controlled motion into having on/off switching abilities. The microrobots are further modified with laccase enzyme by physical adsorption, and the immobilization process is confirmed by enzymatic activity measurements. Oxytetracycline (OTC) is used as a model of veterinary antibiotics to investigate the enzyme-immobilized microrobots for their removal capacities. The results demonstrate that the presence of laccase on the microrobot surfaces can enhance the removal of antibiotics via oxidation. This concept for immobilizing enzymes on self-propelled light-driven microrobots leads to the effective removal of the released antibiotics from water bodies with an environmentally friendly strategy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
C.M.O. acknowledges the grant CEITEC‐K‐21‐7049, financed from Quality Internal Grants of BUT (Reg. No. CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/19_073/0016948). M.U. was supported by the ESF under the project CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/18_053/0016962. M.P. was supported by MEYS CR grant LL2002 under ERC CZ program. CzechNanoLab project LM2018110 funded by MEYS CR is gratefully acknowledged for the financial support of the measurements/sample fabrication at CEITEC Nano Research Infrastructure. The authors would like to thank Dr. M. Urso for scientific discussions.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)