Cooled and heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used to control NOx emissions from diesel engines, but its application has been limited by low thermal efficiency or high unburned hydrocarbon emissions. In this study, hydrogen was added into the intake manifold of a diesel engine to investigate its effect on NOx emissions and thermal efficiency under low-temperature and heavy-EGR conditions. The energy content of the introduced hydrogen was varied from an equivalent of 2-10% of the total fuel's lower heating value. A test engine was operated at a constant diesel fuel injection rate and engine speed to maintain the same engine control unit (ECU) parameters, such as injection time, while observing changes in the carbon dioxide produced due to variations in the hydrogen supply. Additionally, the EGR system was modified to control the EGR ratio. The temperature of the intake gas manifold was controlled by both the EGR cooler and the inter-cooling devices to maintain a temperature of 25 °C. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured for different hydrogen flow rates at a constant EGR ratio. The test results demonstrated that the supplied hydrogen reduced the specific NOx emissions at a given EGR ratio while increasing the brake thermal efficiency. This behavior was observed over constant EGR ratios of 2, 16, and 31%. The rate of NOx reduction due to hydrogen addition increased at higher EGR ratios compared with pure diesel combustion at the same EGR ratio. At an EGR ratio of 31%, when the hydrogen equivalent to 10% of the total fuel's lower heating value was supplied, the specific NOx was lowered by 25%, and there was a slight increase in the brake thermal efficiency. This behavior was investigated by measuring and analyzing changes in the exhaust gas composition, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology