We prepared hydrophobic sulfur (S) core–shell-layered nano-zero-valent iron (Fe) (S-nZVI) via a post-sulfidation method with varying Fe/S mass ratios for NO3− reduction. Notably, S0.125ZVI (Fe/S = 0.125) showed good N[sbnd]O cleavage properties owing to its high electron (e−) transfer efficiency and low surface passivation. As a result, the S0.125ZVI exhibited higher selectivity of NO3− reduction toward N2 than sole nZVI in synthetic and actual NO3− groundwater in batch experiments. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that H2 evolution over S-nZVI was suppressed by the S atom in the hollow site of the Fe(1 1 0) surface, resulting in nearly 100 % denitrification selectivity. Quenching tests revealed that e− transfer through the S atom toward the surface bounded by NOx species is the dominant denitrification mechanism of S-nZVI. Up-flow column tests using actual groundwater were conducted for 127 d, and S0.125ZVI demonstrated a removal capacity of up to 1907 mg-N/g NO3−. Field experiments using S0.125ZVI for NO3−-contaminated groundwater remediation were conducted over four months, confirming that S-nZVI may be an alternative to nZVI for in situ groundwater remediation.
|Journal||Chemical Engineering Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2023 Feb 15|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (Grant 2018002480006) and National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1A6A1A03038785).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering