Approximately 365 million people in Asia were classified as elderly in 2017. This number is rising and expected to reach approximately 520 million by 2030. The risk of hypertension and cognitive impairment/dementia increases with age. Recent data also show that the prevalence of hypertension and age-related dementia are rising in Asian countries. Moreover, not many people in Asian countries are aware of the relationship between hypertension and cognitive impairment/dementia. Furthermore, hypertension control is poorer in Asia than in developed countries. Hypertension is known to be a major risk factor for damage to target organs, including the brain. Decreased cognitive function can indicate the presence of target organ damage in the brain. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure profiles and blood pressure variability have been associated with cognitive impairment and/or silent cerebral diseases, such as silent cerebral infarction or white matter lesions, which are predisposing conditions for cognitive impairment and dementia. Hypertension that occurs in midlife also affects the incidence of cognitive impairments in later life. Managing and controlling blood pressure could preserve cognitive functions, such as by reducing the risk of vascular dementia and by reducing the global burden of stroke, which also affects cognitive function.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Editing assistance was provided by Pfizer Inc. The meetings held between the authors to discuss and prepare this manuscript were funded by unrestricted educational grants from Pfizer and Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd.
K Kario received research grants from Teijin Pharma, Omron Healthcare, Fukuda Denshi, Bayer Yakuhin, A&D, Daiichi Sankyo, Mochida Pharmaceutical, EA Pharma, Boehringer Ingelheim Japan, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi & Co., MSD KK, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Bristol‐Myers Squibb KK, Pfizer Japan, and Otsuka Holdings, and honoraria from Takeda Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Omron Healthcare, and Terumo Corporation. S Park has received research grants and honoraria from Pfizer. S Siddique has received honoraria from Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, ICI, and Servier; and travel, accommodation and conference registration support from Atco Pharmaceutical, Highnoon Laboratories, Horizon Pharma, ICI, and Pfizer. YC Chia has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend conferences and CME seminars from Abbott, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Orient Europharma, Pfizer, and Sanofi; and a research grant from Pfizer. J Shin has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend seminars from Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Menarini, MSD, Bristol‐Myers Squibb, and Sanofi. CH Chen has received honoraria as a member of a speaker's bureau for Pfizer. R Divinagracia has received honoraria as a member of speaker's bureaus for Bayer, Novartis, and Pfizer. J Sison has received honoraria from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Novartis. GP Sogunuru has received a research grant related to hypertension monitoring and treatment from Pfizer. JC Tay has received advisory board and consultant honoraria from Pfizer. JG Wang has received research grants from Bayer, Pfizer, and Phillips; and lecture and consulting fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier. L Wong has received honoraria from Bristol‐Myers Squibb and Pfizer. Y Zhang has received research grants from Bayer, Novartis, and Shuanghe; and lecture fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Servier, and Takeda. All other authors report no potential conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
©2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine