The aim of this study was to determine whether decreased serum sodium concentration could be associated with the disease activity in SLE. We retrospectively analyzed the data of the two independent cohorts of children and adults with SLE in two centers. Hyponatremia was associated with serum chloride (p = 0.004), albumin (p = 0.002) and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (p = 0.026) in children with SLE. Serum sodium levels were correlated negatively with ESR (p =0.001) and positively with serum albumin levels (p < 0.0001) and C3 (p = 0.008) in children with SLE and those levels were correlated negatively with serum interleukin-6 levels (p = 0.003) in adults with SLE. Independent risk factors for the development of hyponatremia were the decreased serum C3 levels (OR 1.069, p = 0.031), the decreased serum chloride levels (OR 2.054, p = 0.006) and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 1.066, p = 0.03) in children with SLE and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.480, p = 0.023) in combined cohorts with SLE by multiple logistic regression analyses. Our study firstly showed that hyponatremia could reflect a disease activity and severe inflammation of SLE.
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