Energy expenditure and energy intake need to be balanced to maintain proper energy homeostasis. Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system, and the hypothalamus is the primary center for the regulation of energy balance. The hypothalamus exerts its effect through both humoral and neuronal mechanisms, and each hypothalamic area has a distinct role in the regulation of energy expenditure. Recent studies have advanced the understanding of the molecular regulation of energy expenditure and thermogenesis in the hypothalamus with targeted manipulation techniques of the mouse genome and neuronal function. In this review, we elucidate recent progress in understanding the mechanism of how the hypothalamus affects basal metabolism, modulates physical activity, and adapts to environmental temperature and food intake changes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation, Korea (2016R1A5A2008630 and 2021R1A2C4002011 to K.W.K.; 2018R1C1B5086453 and 2020R1C1C1008033 to O.K.), and by the Creative-Pioneering Researchers Program through Seoul National University (to O.K.). We thank Seung-Yoon Oh and Jisoo Jeong for their help in preparing the manuscript for publication.
© 2022, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry