Obesity is a global health problem that is associated with adverse consequences such as the development of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and type 2 diabetes. A major cause of obesity is metabolic imbalance, which results from insufficient physical activity and excess energy intake. Understanding the pathogenesis of obesity, as well as other metabolic disorders, is important in the development of methods for prevention and therapy. The coordination of energy balance takes place in the hypothalamus, a major brain region that maintains body homeostasis. The primary cilium is an organelle that has recently received attention because of its role in controlling energy balance in the hypothalamus. Defects in proteins required for ciliary function and formation, both in humans and in mice, have been shown to cause various metabolic disorders. In this review, we provide an overview of the critical functions of primary cilia, particularly in hypothalamic areas, and briefly summarize the studies on the primary roles of cilia in specific neurons relating to metabolic homeostasis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation, Korea (2016R1A5A2008630 and 2021R1A2C4002011), and Yonsei University College of Dentistry (6-2019-0019) for K.W.K.
© 2021, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry