Inflammatory molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Abnormal expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules have been described to cause an imbalance to the gut innate and adaptive immunity, and recently a large portion of research in IBD has been geared towards identifying novel molecules that may be used as potential therapeutic targets. Understanding of these inflammatory molecules has suggested that although ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease share many common clinical symptoms and signs, they are in fact two separate clinical entities characterized by different immunopathogenesis. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the roles of numerous inflammatory molecules including but not limited to cytokines, chemokines, inflammasomes, microRNAs and neuropeptides and their expression status in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in relation to their effects on the overall intestinal inflammatory process.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy