OBJECTIVE: Increasing number of clinical guidelines are adopting comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment tools for treatment decision and disease management. Yet, little is known regarding cardiovascular risks associated with the length of favourable cardiometabolic profile. In this context, we examined whether the duration of strictly ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), based on body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity, in middle age is associated with risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in mid-to-late life. METHODS: From the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study Ansung-Ansan cohort, we included 8020 participants (median age 50.0 years, 47.9% male), of whom, 7854 without CKD and 7796 without CVD at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess CKD and CVD risks, adjusting for age, sex, education level, examination sites and renal markers. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 15.0 years, 1401 cases of CKD and 493 cases of CVD were newly developed. Compared with participants with <5 years of ideal CVH duration, HR (95% CI) of those who maintained for 5-<10 years or ≥10 years had negatively graded risks for CKD (5-<10 years, 0.63 (0.39 to 0.93); ≥10 years, 0.33 (0.15 to 0.74)) and CVD (5-<10 years, 0.83 (0.54 to 1.27); ≥10 years, 0.22 (0.08 to 0.60)). In parallel, participants with delayed decline to suboptimal level had lower disease risks compared with counterparts with consistently suboptimal CVH. CONCLUSION: Our findings confer that maintaining favourable health behaviours and clinical risk factor levels in midlife will improve later-life cardiovascular outcomes.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine