Identification of underlying causes of spontaneous submacular hemorrhage by indocyanine green angiography

Hyesun Kim, Sungchul Lee, Sang Myung Kim, Ji Hwan Lee, Hyoung Jun Koh, Sung Soo Kim, Suk Ho Byeon, Min Kim, Christopher Seungkyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the causes of acute spontaneous submacular hemorrhage with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: Retrospective observation case series. A total of 51 eyes from 51 patients with newly developed spontaneous submacular hemorrhage were enrolled. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ICGA at baseline were analyzed. The extent of hemorrhage using fundus photography, height of hemorrhage, and central foveal thickness measured by OCT was analyzed to compare the diagnostic and nondiagnostic groups. Results: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA at presentation was 1.21 ± 0.74 (Snellen equivalent, 20/324); the mean follow-up period was 23.9 ± 23.9 months. The cause of submacular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 43 of 51 eyes (84.3%) based on ICGA at presentation. The initial diagnoses were correct in 93% of eyes. In 3 cases, the initial diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was changed to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on follow-up ICGA. The central foveal thickness was significantly greater in the nondiagnostic group (1,102.4 vs. 666.7 μm, respectively; p = 0.008). The most common cause of submacular hemorrhage was neovascular AMD (52.9%), followed by PCV (37.3%), macroaneurysm (5.9%), and lacquer crack (3.9%). The mean final visual acuity was generally worse in patients with submacular hemorrhage with typical AMD (visual acuity 20/618) or PCV (visual acuity 20/240) compared to that in patients with retinal macroaneurysm (visual acuity 20/100) or lacquer crack (visual acuity 20/72). Conclusions: ICGA at initial presentation helps identify causes of submacular hemorrhage, allowing differential treatment approaches that may improve outcomes and safety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-154
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmologica
Volume233
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun 15

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Indocyanine Green
Angiography
Visual Acuity
Hemorrhage
Macular Degeneration
Lacquer
Photography
Optical Coherence Tomography
Fluorescein Angiography
Observation
Safety

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems

Cite this

Kim, Hyesun ; Lee, Sungchul ; Kim, Sang Myung ; Lee, Ji Hwan ; Koh, Hyoung Jun ; Kim, Sung Soo ; Byeon, Suk Ho ; Kim, Min ; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu. / Identification of underlying causes of spontaneous submacular hemorrhage by indocyanine green angiography. In: Ophthalmologica. 2015 ; Vol. 233. pp. 146-154.
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abstract = "Purpose: To investigate the causes of acute spontaneous submacular hemorrhage with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: Retrospective observation case series. A total of 51 eyes from 51 patients with newly developed spontaneous submacular hemorrhage were enrolled. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ICGA at baseline were analyzed. The extent of hemorrhage using fundus photography, height of hemorrhage, and central foveal thickness measured by OCT was analyzed to compare the diagnostic and nondiagnostic groups. Results: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA at presentation was 1.21 ± 0.74 (Snellen equivalent, 20/324); the mean follow-up period was 23.9 ± 23.9 months. The cause of submacular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 43 of 51 eyes (84.3{\%}) based on ICGA at presentation. The initial diagnoses were correct in 93{\%} of eyes. In 3 cases, the initial diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was changed to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on follow-up ICGA. The central foveal thickness was significantly greater in the nondiagnostic group (1,102.4 vs. 666.7 μm, respectively; p = 0.008). The most common cause of submacular hemorrhage was neovascular AMD (52.9{\%}), followed by PCV (37.3{\%}), macroaneurysm (5.9{\%}), and lacquer crack (3.9{\%}). The mean final visual acuity was generally worse in patients with submacular hemorrhage with typical AMD (visual acuity 20/618) or PCV (visual acuity 20/240) compared to that in patients with retinal macroaneurysm (visual acuity 20/100) or lacquer crack (visual acuity 20/72). Conclusions: ICGA at initial presentation helps identify causes of submacular hemorrhage, allowing differential treatment approaches that may improve outcomes and safety.",
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Identification of underlying causes of spontaneous submacular hemorrhage by indocyanine green angiography. / Kim, Hyesun; Lee, Sungchul; Kim, Sang Myung; Lee, Ji Hwan; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Kim, Sung Soo; Byeon, Suk Ho; Kim, Min; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu.

In: Ophthalmologica, Vol. 233, 15.06.2015, p. 146-154.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Lee, Sungchul

AU - Kim, Sang Myung

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AU - Kim, Sung Soo

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N2 - Purpose: To investigate the causes of acute spontaneous submacular hemorrhage with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: Retrospective observation case series. A total of 51 eyes from 51 patients with newly developed spontaneous submacular hemorrhage were enrolled. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ICGA at baseline were analyzed. The extent of hemorrhage using fundus photography, height of hemorrhage, and central foveal thickness measured by OCT was analyzed to compare the diagnostic and nondiagnostic groups. Results: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA at presentation was 1.21 ± 0.74 (Snellen equivalent, 20/324); the mean follow-up period was 23.9 ± 23.9 months. The cause of submacular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 43 of 51 eyes (84.3%) based on ICGA at presentation. The initial diagnoses were correct in 93% of eyes. In 3 cases, the initial diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was changed to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on follow-up ICGA. The central foveal thickness was significantly greater in the nondiagnostic group (1,102.4 vs. 666.7 μm, respectively; p = 0.008). The most common cause of submacular hemorrhage was neovascular AMD (52.9%), followed by PCV (37.3%), macroaneurysm (5.9%), and lacquer crack (3.9%). The mean final visual acuity was generally worse in patients with submacular hemorrhage with typical AMD (visual acuity 20/618) or PCV (visual acuity 20/240) compared to that in patients with retinal macroaneurysm (visual acuity 20/100) or lacquer crack (visual acuity 20/72). Conclusions: ICGA at initial presentation helps identify causes of submacular hemorrhage, allowing differential treatment approaches that may improve outcomes and safety.

AB - Purpose: To investigate the causes of acute spontaneous submacular hemorrhage with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: Retrospective observation case series. A total of 51 eyes from 51 patients with newly developed spontaneous submacular hemorrhage were enrolled. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ICGA at baseline were analyzed. The extent of hemorrhage using fundus photography, height of hemorrhage, and central foveal thickness measured by OCT was analyzed to compare the diagnostic and nondiagnostic groups. Results: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA at presentation was 1.21 ± 0.74 (Snellen equivalent, 20/324); the mean follow-up period was 23.9 ± 23.9 months. The cause of submacular hemorrhage was diagnosed in 43 of 51 eyes (84.3%) based on ICGA at presentation. The initial diagnoses were correct in 93% of eyes. In 3 cases, the initial diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was changed to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on follow-up ICGA. The central foveal thickness was significantly greater in the nondiagnostic group (1,102.4 vs. 666.7 μm, respectively; p = 0.008). The most common cause of submacular hemorrhage was neovascular AMD (52.9%), followed by PCV (37.3%), macroaneurysm (5.9%), and lacquer crack (3.9%). The mean final visual acuity was generally worse in patients with submacular hemorrhage with typical AMD (visual acuity 20/618) or PCV (visual acuity 20/240) compared to that in patients with retinal macroaneurysm (visual acuity 20/100) or lacquer crack (visual acuity 20/72). Conclusions: ICGA at initial presentation helps identify causes of submacular hemorrhage, allowing differential treatment approaches that may improve outcomes and safety.

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