Innovation has become a key component of the national development plans of socialist countries. However, information on the technology and innovation of these countries is not readily accessible. Patent information enables researchers to gain insight into socialist developments. This study explores innovation patterns in socialist countries through a text mining analysis of patent titles and an association rules analysis of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes. Main technology convergence and clusters of patents by Cuban and Vietnamese applicants at four international patent offices and their domestic patent offices are identified. The results indicate that innovation relies on state-owned enterprises in Cuba, whereas in Vietnam, there is greater participation from the private sector. In Cuba, most co-applicant activities occurred with universities and research institutes in Canada, the Netherlands, and Great Britain, while in Vietnam, these activities occurred with companies or individuals in Japan, France, and the United States. Cuba's patents strongly converge in the pharmacy field, especially in relation to treating chronic infection, research on vaccine composition, and environments with microorganisms used to create vaccines. In Vietnam, some patents reveal a convergence in the printing industry, because of the government's policies supporting foreign companies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) ( 2016R1A2A1A05005270 ).
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Library and Information Sciences