Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the effect of hard and/or soft tissue grafting on immediate implants in a preclinical model. Methods: In 5 mongrel dogs, the distal roots of P2 and P3 were extracted from the maxilla (4 sites in each animal), and immediate implant placement was performed. Each site was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 4 groups: i) gap filling with guided bone regeneration (the GBR group), ii) subepithelial connective tissue grafting (the SCTG group), iii) GBR and SCTG (the GBR/SCTG group), and iv) no further treatment (control). Non-submerged healing was provided for 4 months. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Results: Peri-implant tissue height and thickness favored the SCTG group (height of periimplant mucosa: 1.14 mm; tissue thickness at the implant shoulder and ±1 mm from the shoulder: 1.14 mm, 0.78 mm, and 1.57 mm, respectively; median value) over the other groups. Bone grafting was not effective at the level of the implant shoulder and on the coronal level of the shoulder. In addition, simultaneous soft and hard tissue augmentation (the GBR/SCTG group) led to a less favorable tissue contour compared to GBR or SCTG alone (height of periimplant mucosa: 3.06 mm; thickness of peri-implant mucosa at the implant shoulder and ±1 mm from the shoulder: 0.72 mm, 0.3 mm, and 1.09 mm, respectively). Conclusion: SCTG tended to have positive effects on the thickness and height of the periimplant mucosa in immediate implant placement. However, simultaneous soft and hard tissue augmentation might not allow a satisfactory tissue contour in cases where the relationship between implant position and neighboring bone housing is unfavorable.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors express their gratitude to the researchers in the Department of Periodontology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea for supporting the experiment, and Dr. Kwang-Seok Lee in the Department of Periodontology, Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital for assisting with histomorphometry. The statistical support of Prof. Jürg Hüsler, University of Zurich is highly acknowledged.
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning) (No. NRF-2017R1A2B2002537).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Oral Surgery