Influenza virus infection remains a major public health challenge, causing significant morbidity and mortality by annual epidemics and intermittent pandemics. Although current seasonal influenza vaccines provide efficient protection, antigenic changes of the viruses often significantly compromise the protection efficacy of vaccines, rendering most populations vulnerable to the viral infection. Considerable efforts have been made to develop a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) able to confer long-lasting and broad protection. Recent studies have characterized multiple immune correlates required for providing broad protection against influenza viruses, including neutralizing antibodies, non-neutralizing antibodies, antibody effector functions, T cell responses, and mucosal immunity. To induce broadly protective immune responses by vaccination, various strategies using live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) and novel vaccine platforms are under investigation. Despite superior cross-protection ability, very little attention has been paid to LAIVs for the development of UIV. This review focuses on immune responses induced by LAIVs, with special emphasis placed on the breadth and the potency of individual immune correlates. The promising prospect of LAIVs to serve as an attractive and reliable vaccine platforms for a UIV is also discussed. Several important issues that should be addressed with respect to the use of LAIVs as UIV are also reviewed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018R1D1A1B07048881), Nature Bioindustry Technology Development and Enterprise Support Project in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare from the Korean Government (HI20C0144).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)