Purpose The present study analyzed the expression of specific cytokines in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily postoperatively after mandibular vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). Materials and Methods Four beagle dogs were enrolled and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively for immunohistochemical analysis using 6 specific antibodies (bone morphogenetic protein [BMP]-2/4, BMP-7, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). The results from the surgical site and control (adjacent area) were compared. Results Generalized upregulation of BMP-2/4 was observed in all healing periods, and the strongest expression of BMP-7 was observed at 1 week postoperatively. The strongest expression of TGF-β2 was observed at 8 weeks with increasing pattern. The strong expression of TGF-β3 was observed at 1 and 4 weeks, with the strongest expression of VEGF at 1 week, with a decreasing pattern. No notable uptake was detected with the 6 specific antibodies in the adjacent bone (control). Conclusions The absence of internal fixation after VRO led to dynamic healing with a specific expression pattern of BMP-7 and TGF-β2. The anatomic factors, including sufficient preexisting vascularity, led to the earlier expression pattern of VEGF.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This article was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Dentistry (6-2016-0020).
© 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Oral Surgery