A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was operated for more than 120 days with fixed hydraulic retention time of 6 h at mesophilic temperature along with a periodic recovery phase towards hydrogen production and stimulated by the existence of 5-hydroxy methyl furfural concentration (5-HMF). Interestingly, CSTR mixed with a small amount of 5-HMF, range of 0.3–0.6 g/L showed at least 50% higher hydrogen production rate than control without 5-HMF. However, when 5-HMF concentration was higher than 0.6 g/L, the performance was significantly inhibited. The bacterial community shifted by 5-HMF from Clostridium-dominated to Lactobacillus-dominated population. Regardless of the remain 5-HMF concentration in CSTR, the microbial community and hydrogen producing performance were restored by stop mixing the 5-HMF from the feedstock. The high-rate hydrogen production of 20.0 ± 1.8 L H2/L/d was achieved in the presence of 5-HMF using the threshold information and recovery strategy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. 2019M3E6A1065160 ) and Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government (MOTIE) (No. 20188550000540 ).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology