This paper reports on the first attempt to investigate whether excessive precipitation overmountainous areas, which is a common problem in model simulations, could be remedied by the implementation of a more realistic surface wind field in the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. A series of 48 h short-range forecasts was conducted for the month of July 2006 within the triple-nested WRF configuration, for which the highest resolution of 3km was focused on areas with complex orography over East Asian monsoonal regions. For accurate surface wind simulations, the subgrid-scale (SGS) orography parameterization scheme was employed. It was found that the simulated surface wind showed negative (positive) bias over mountainous (flat) regions when the SGS orography parameterization was excluded. After inclusion of the SGS orography parameterization, wind speed over mountainous (flat) regions increased (decreased), implying that the bias was mitigated. Moisture divergence (convergence) over the mountains (on the leeward side of the mountains) was induced, and surface latent heat flux increased along the mountain ranges following the improvement in the representation of the surface wind by the inclusion of the SGS orography parameterization. Eventually, excessive precipitation simulated overmountainous areas of East Asia, which is a feature commonly observed in numerical model studies, was alleviated because of the moisture divergence and increased surface latent heat flux.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding was provided by the Korean Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grants CATER2012-3055 and 2012–3034 and by the Long-term Ecological Research under Changing Global Environment from Korea Forest Research Institute. Modeling results and the observational data sets presented in this study are available upon request to the corresponding author and the KMA, respectively.
© 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aquatic Science
- Water Science and Technology
- Soil Science
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Earth-Surface Processes
- Atmospheric Science
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Space and Planetary Science