Stack-based virtual machines (VMs) are being employed with embedded systems for their space-efficient instruction format. Bytecode can be compressed to further reduce the memory footprint. A technique introduced by Latendresse et al. (Sci Comput Program 57:295–317, 2005)  decodes Huffman-compressed bytecode without a prior decompression step of the program as a whole. Instead, the VM instruction dispatch determines the next opcode from a sequence of tablelookups from the compressed bytecode stream. In this paper we identify indirect branches as a major performance bottleneck of the Latendresse Huffman decoder. We show conclusively that the heuristics of CPU branch predictors are in-effective with Just-in-Time (JIT) Huffman decoding, and we provide a revised decoder where indirect branches have been eliminated. We experimentally evaluate our proposed method as a stand-alone decoder and as part of the instruction dispatch of TinyVM (Hong et al. in Softw Pract Exp 42:1193–1209, 2012) . A representative selection of benchmarks from the MiBench suite (Guthaus et al. IEEE international workshop on workload characterization, WWC-4, pp. 3–14, 2001)  showed improvements between 20 and 35% in overall interpreter performance.
|Title of host publication||Frontier and Innovation in Future Computing and Communications|
|Editors||Albert Zomaya, James J. Park, Hwa-Young Jeong, Mohammad Obaidat|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
|Event||2014 FTRA International Symposium on Frontier and Innovation in Future Computing and Communications, FCC 2014 - Auckland, New Zealand|
Duration: 2014 Jan 13 → 2014 Jan 16
|Name||Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering|
|Other||2014 FTRA International Symposium on Frontier and Innovation in Future Computing and Communications, FCC 2014|
|Period||14/1/13 → 14/1/16|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) under grant no. 2012K2A1A9054713.
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering