Wereport improvement of hole injection efficiency of a graphene anode by tuning its work function (WF) via surface fluorination.Weused chemical vapor deposition to synthesize high-quality graphene sheets and then treated them withCHF3 plasma to induce fluorination.Weused x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to examine the fluorine coverage and the kind of chemical bonds in fluorinated graphene (FG). Also, we used ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to systematically study the changes in theWFand sheet resistance of the FG sheets with varying plasma exposure time (0, 10, 30, 60, 90 s) to find an optimum fluorination condition for hole injection. TheWFof graphene sheets was increased by up to 0.74 eV, as a result of the formation of carbon-fluorine bonds that function as negative surface dipoles.Wefabricated hole-only devices and conducted dark injection space-chargelimited- current transient measurement; the fluorination greatly increased the hole injection efficiency of graphene anodes (from 0.237 to 0.652). The enhanced hole injection efficiency of FG anodes in our study provides wide opportunities for applications in graphene-based flexible/stretchable organic optoelectronics.
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©2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering