In-Situ Observation of Crystallization and Growth in High-Temperature Melts Using the Confocal Laser Microscope

Il Sohn, Rian Dippenaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


This review discusses the innovative efforts initiated by Emi and co-workers for in-situ observation of phase transformations at high temperatures for materials. By using the high-temperature confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM), a robust database of the phase transformation behavior during heating and cooling of slags, fluxes, and steel can be developed. The rate of solidification and the progression of solid-state phase transformations can be readily investigated under a variety of atmospheric conditions and be correlated with theoretical predictions. The various research efforts following the work of Emi and co-workers have allowed a deeper fundamental understanding of the elusive solidification and phase transformation mechanisms in materials beyond the ambit of steels. This technique continues to evolve in terms of its methodology, application to other materials, and its contribution to technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2083-2094
Number of pages12
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The contents of some of the review were provided in part at the CTSSC-EMI symposium held at The University of Tokyo in Japan on September 2015. The authors greatly appreciate the pioneering efforts on high-temperature in-situ observations using the CLSM by Professor Toshihiko Emi. This work was partially funded by the Brain Korea 21 (BK21) PLUS Project in the Division of Eco-Humantronics Information Materials and the project sponsored by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) No. 10052751.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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