Despite various strategies to address sticking failure in stainless steels (STSs), difficulties in understanding its fundamental mechanisms hinder precise solutions during STS fabrication. This study investigated the effect of chromium (Cr) content on the microstructures and failure modes of oxide scales under a tensile load, simulating the hot-rolling process. The dynamic, real-time behavior of crack initiation, propagation, and interfacial delamination in the oxide scales under tension was analyzed using an in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tensile test. With a high Cr content, iron (Fe) oxide and chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) form a layered structure, which is delaminated along the interfaces between the thin Cr2O3layer and the bulk after perpendicular cracking. The saturated crack densities obtained from in situ SEM provide interfacial strength, while the elastic modulus and hardness obtained from nanoindentation provide vertical fracture strength. In combination with an ex situ elemental image analysis, the in situ SEM results reveal three different failure modes of the four different STSs. The results confirm that sticking failure is more likely to occur as the Cr content increases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge the Pohang Technical Research Laboratory, POSCO, for their financial support of this work.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)