Microplastics which are gradually and randomly decompose into small fragment by exposure of physical and biological external stress are emerging as a significant threat to the all the environments. Here, we have demonstrated the in vitro toxicity of microplastics of two different shapes. To minimize the chemical effect, polyethylene (PE), was used. PE microplastics with two different shapes were prepared, high-density PE microbeads and irregularly ground low-density PE from bulk pellets. It is hypothesized that morphological characteristics and concentration of PE microplastics could affect cellular viability, immunity, and lysis. To quantify the randomness of the microplastic shape, the edge patterns of the generated PE microplastics were converted into numerical values and analyzed using a statistical method. A 10-fold difference in curvature value was observed between microbeads and ground microfragments. To correlate shape differences to toxicology, cells were exposed to PE microplastics on the demand of toxicology studies. We found that the higher concentration and rough structure were associated with the toxicity of plastics toward cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and hemolysis, even though PE is buoyant onto medium. The PE microbeads did not exhibit severe cytotoxicity at any of the tested concentrations, but induced immune and hemolysis responses at high concentrations. When comparing the toxicity of different shapes of PE microplastics, we confirmed by statistical analysis that irregular-shape plastics with sharp edges and higher curvature differences may adversely affect cells, further having possibility to human toxicity in real environment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal