Background: Intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) is very rare, and epidemiologic data regarding BD are scarce. Moreover, there have been no population-based studies focusing on intestinal BD. We conducted a nationwide population-based study to examine the incidence and clinical course of Korean patients with intestinal BD. Methods: We collected data on 365 patients diagnosed with intestinal BD from 2011 to 2014 using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services claims database. We analyzed the incidence and clinical outcomes, including cumulative rates of bowel resection, hospitalization, and medication use. Results: During the study period, the average annual incidence for intestinal BD was 0.18 per 105 population, and the proportion of cases with intestinal involvement was 3.9%. At 1 and 4 years after diagnosis, the cumulative rates of surgery were 5.0 and 10.9%, respectively, whereas those of hospitalization were 27.8 and 32.4%, respectively. The 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of requirements for medications were 39.8 and 49.1% for moderate- to high-dose corticosteroids, 33.6 and 42.1% for immunomodulators, and 3.5 and 6.8% for biologics, respectively. The cumulative probability of corticosteroid and immunomodulator use was higher in male than in female patients and in younger (<40 years) than in older (≥40 years) patients. However, there were no significant differences in the cumulative probabilities of surgery, hospitalization, and biologics use according to sex and age group. Conclusions: The incidence of intestinal BD in Korea is quite low and has been stable in recent years.
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