Background: Antimicrobial surveillance is important for providing an up-to-date understanding of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance and for creating a forum for rational drug development. In this study, we analyzed antimicrobial test data generated in 2011 by hospitals and commercial laboratories participating in the Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program (KONSAR). Materials and Methods: Data on the results of susceptibility tests conducted in 32 hospitals and two commercial laboratories were analyzed. Data on isolates from patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and those admitted to other wards were compared. Intermediate susceptibility was not analyzed and duplicate isolates were excluded. Results: Escherichia coli was the most prevalent organism identified in both the hospital and commercial laboratories. Among the hospital isolates, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin G-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, and ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium remained as prevalent as they were in 2009. The proportion of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VR-EFM) slightly decreased from 29% in 2009 to 23% in 2011. Resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceftazidime, cefoxitin, fluoroquinolone, and amikacin were 24%, 14%, 27%, and 8%, respectively. Resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fl uoroquinolone, ceftazidime, imipenem, and amikacin were 33%, 20%, 22%, and 16%, respectively, whereas those of Acinetobacter spp. resistance were 71%, 66%, 64, and 51%, respectively. The prevalence of oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa, MRSA, and VR-EFM among ICU isolates was higher than those among non-ICU isolates. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, and VR-EFM were more prevalent among isolates from commercial laboratories than those from hospitals. Resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime and amikacin decreased from 32% and 24% in 2005 to 24% and 8% in 2011, respectively. The resistance rate of P. aeruginosa to amikacin decreased from 22% in 2005 to 16% in 2011. The proportion of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 16% in 2005 to 64% in 2011. Conclusions: The prevalence of MRSA, penicillin G-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae, and ampicillin-resistant E. faecium among clinical isolates tested in laboratories remained high. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent among isolates from ICUs. The prevalence of ceftazidime-resistant and amikacin-resistant K. pneumoniae and amikacin-resistant P. aeruginosa decreased after 2005, while the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)