Purpose: Antimicrobial resistance monitoring could be a useful source of information for treating and controlling nosocomial infections. We analyzed antimicrobial resistance data generated by Korean Hospitals and by a commercial laboratory in 2005 and 2007. Materials and Methods: Susceptibility data for 2005 and 2007 were collected from 37 and 41 hospitals, respectively, and from one commercial laboratory. Intermediate susceptibility was not included in the calculation of resistance rates. Results: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (64%), third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (29%), fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (27%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%), and Acinetobacter spp. (48%), and amikacin-resistant P. aeruginosa (19%) and Acinetobacter spp. (37%) were prevalent in hospitals in 2007. A gradual increase of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. was observed. Higher incidences of thirdgeneration cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae and imipenemresistant P. aeruginosa were found in the commercial laboratory than in the hospitals. Conclusion: Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, third-generation cephalosporin- resistant K. pneumoniae, and fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. remain prevalent in Korea, while the incidence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has increased gradually. The higher prevalences of third-generation cephalosporinresistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa in the commercial laboratory are a new concern.
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