Leksell GammaPlan was specifically designed for Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery planning, but it has limited accuracy for estimating the dose distribution in inhomogeneous areas, such as the embolization of arteriovenous malformations. We aimed to develop an independent patient dose validation system based on a patient-specific model, constructed using a DICOM-RT interface and the Geant4 toolkit. Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion was designed in Geant4.10.00 and includes a DICOM-RT interface. Output factors for each collimator in a sector and dose distributions in a spherical water phantom calculated using a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm were compared with the output factors calculated by the tissue maximum ratio (TMR) 10 algorithm and dose distributions measured using film, respectively. Studies using two types of water phantom and two patient simulation cases were evaluated by comparing the dose distributions calculated by the MC, the TMR and the convolution algorithms. The water phantom studies showed that if the beam size is small and the target is located in heterogeneous media, the dose difference could be up to 11%. In the two patient simulations, the TMR algorithm overestimated the dose by about 4% of the maximum dose if a complex and large bony structure was located on the beam path, whereas the convolution algorithm showed similar results to those of the MC algorithm. This study demonstrated that the in-house system could accurately verify the patient dose based on full MC simulation and so would be useful for patient cases where the dose differences are suspected.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning ( NRF-2017R1A2B4010416 ).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Physics and Astronomy(all)