Because of unsatisfactory treatment options for prostate cancer (CaP) there is a need to develop novel preventive approaches for this malignancy. One such strategy is through chemoprevention by the use of non-toxic dietary substances and botanical products. We have shown previously that panduratin A isolated from the extract of Kaempferia pandurata (Zingiberaceae) is a strong inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW264.7 cells and induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells. In the present study, we provide evidence that panduratin A treatment to androgen-independent human CaP cells PC3 and DU145 result in a time and dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with an IC50 of 13.5-14 μM and no to little effect on normal human prostate epithelial cells. To define the mechanism of these anti-proliferative effects of panduratin A, we determined its effect on critical molecular events known to regulate the cell cycle and the apoptotic machinery. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining provided the evidence for the induction of apoptosis which was further confirmed by the observation of cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and degradation of acinus. Panduratin A treatment to cells was found to result in inhibition of procaspases 9, 8, 6 and 3 with significant increase in the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2, suggesting the involvement of a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Panduratin A-mediated apoptosis was accompanied with upregulation of Fas death receptor and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Furthermore, cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that panduratin A treatment of cells resulted in a G2/ M arrest in a dose-dependent manner. The immunoblot analysis data revealed that in both cell lines panduratin A treatment resulted in a dose-dependent (i) induction of p21 WAF1/Cip1 and p27 Kip1, (ii) downregulation of cdks 2, 4 and 6 and (iii) decrease in cyclins D1 and E. These findings suggest that panduratin A may be an effective chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against CaP.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the International Research Internship Program of the Korea Research Foundation to J.-M. Yun to conduct research work in the laboratory of Hasan Mukhtar in Madison, WI and used support provided by US PHS grants RO1 CA 78809 and RO1 CA 101039.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research