Additive manufacturing or 3D-printing have become promising fabrication techniques in the field of electrochemical energy storage applications such as supercapacitors, and batteries. Of late, a commercially available graphene/polylactic acid (PLA) filament has been commonly used for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D-printing in the fabrication of electrodes for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. This graphene/PLA filament contains metal-based impurities such as titanium oxide and iron oxide. In this study, we show a strong influence of inherent impurities in the graphene/PLA filament for supercapacitor applications. A 3D-printed electrode is prepared and subsequently thermally activated for electrochemical measurement. A deep insight has been taken to look into the pseudocapacitive contribution from the metal-based impurities which significantly enhanced the overall capacitance of the 3D-printed graphene/PLA electrode. A systematic approach has been shown to remove the impurities from the printed electrodes. This has a broad implication on the interpretation of the capacitance of 3D-printed composites.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
M.P. acknowledges the financial support by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GACR EXPRO: 19–26896X). K.G. thanks to CEITEC Nano Research Infrastructure supported by MEYS CR (LM2018110) for providing spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations facilities.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry